|English: Vande Mataram|
Vande Mataram tender
|Lyrics||Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Anandmath, 1882|
|Adopted||January 24, 1950|
Vande Mataram ( Bengali script : বন্দে মাতরম্ ; Hindi / Sanskrit : वन्दे मातरम् ; Vande Mātaram “ I bow to thee, Mother ” ) is a poem from the famed novel Anandamath which was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1882. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit. It is a hymn to Goddess Durga, identified as the national personification of India. It played a vital character in the indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 seance of the indian National Congress. [ 1 ]
In 1950 ( after India ‘s independence ), the song ‘s first two verses were given the official condition of the “ national song ” of the Republic of India, discrete from the home anthem of India Jana Gana Mana .
The two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the “ National birdcall ” learn as follows :
Translation into English
here is the translation in prose of the above two stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo Ghose. This has besides been adopted by the Government of India ‘s national portal site [ 1 ] It should be noted that the original Vande Mataram consists of six stanza and the translation in prose for the accomplished poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909. [ 4 ]
I show gratitude to thee, Mother,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
The mother !
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laugh, fresh of speech,
The Mother, donor of boons, giver of bliss.
apart from the above prose translation, Sri Aurobindo besides translated Vande Mataram into a verse form known as Mother, I Bow to Thee. [ 5 ]
Sri Aurobindo commented thus on his english translation of the poem : [ 6 ]
|“||It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force.||”|
history and significance
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was one of the earliest graduates of the newly-established Calcutta University. After his BA, he joined the british indian government as a civil handmaid, becoming a District Magistrate and late a District Collector. Chatterjee was very interest in recent events in indian and Bengali history, particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century ‘s Sannyasi Rebellion. [ 7 ] Around the like time, the presidency was trying to promote God Save the Queen as the hymn for indian subjects, which indian nationalists disliked. It is by and large believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chatterjee when he was distillery a politics official, around 1876. [ 8 ]
Chatterjee wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali. The poem was published in Chatterjee ‘s book Anandamatha ( marked Anondomôţh in Bengali ) in 1882, which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem precisely after it was written. [ 8 ]
indian independence drift
The sag raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907 “Vande Mataram” was the national cry for freedom from [ british principle ] during the freedom apparent motion. large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal, in the major city of Calcutta, would work themselves up into a patriotic excitement by shouting the motto “ Vande Mataram ”, or “ Hail to the Mother ( land ) ! ” The british, fearful of the potential danger of an incite indian populace, at one point banned the utterance of the motto in public forums, and imprisoned many exemption fighters for disobeying the banishment. Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years late in 1901 at another school term of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore. [ 8 ] Hiralal Sen made India ‘s first base political film in 1905 which ended with the tone. Matangini Hazra ‘s final words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram [ 9 ]
In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama ( 1861–1936 ) created the first interpretation of India ‘s national flag ( the Tiranga ) in [ Stuttgart ], [ Germany ], in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the center dance band. [ 10 ]
A book titled Kranti Geetanjali published by Arya Printing Press Lahore and Bharatiya Press Dehradun in 1929 containes first two stanza of this lyric on page 11 [ 11 ] as Matra Vandana and a ghazal ( Vande Mataram ] ] composed by Bismil was besides given on its spinal column i.e. page 12. [ 12 ] The book written by the celebrated martyr of Kakori Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil was proscribed by the then british government of India .
borrowing as “ national song ”
tagore ‘s Jana Gana Mana was chosen as the National Anthem of the 1947 Republic of India. Vande Mataram was rejected [ citation needed ] on the grounds that Muslims, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, Arya Samajis and others who opposed idol idolize felt offended by its depicting of the nation as “ Mother Durga “, a Hindu goddess. Muslims besides felt that its lineage as part of Anandamatha, a novel they felt had an anti-Muslim message.
The appointment as “ national birdcall ” predates independence, dating to 1937. At this date, the indian National Congress discussed at distance the status of the song. It was pointed out then that though the beginning two stanza began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the fatherland, in by and by stanza there are references where the fatherland is likened to the Hindu goddess Durga. Therefore, INC decided to adopt only the first two stanza as the home song .
The controversy becomes more complex in the light of Rabindranath Tagore ‘s rejection of the song as one that would unite all communities in India. In his letter to Subhash Chandra Bose ( 1937 ), Tagore wrote :
“ The core of Vande Mataram is a hymn to goddess Durga : this is so plain that there can be no argue about it. Of naturally Bankimchandra does show Durga to be inseparably joined with Bengal in the end, but no Mussulman [ Muslim ] can be expected patriotically to worship the ten-handed deity as ‘Swadesh ‘ [ the nation ]. This year many of the limited [ Durga ] Puja numbers of our magazines have quoted verses from Vande Mataram —proof that the editors take the song to be a hymn to Durga. The novel Anandamath is a sour of literature, and so the song is allow in it. But Parliament is a plaza of union for all religious groups, and there the birdcall can not be appropriate. When Bengali Mussulmans show signs of stubborn fanaticism, we regard these as intolerable. When we excessively copy them and make unreasonable demands, it will be self-defeating. ”
In a addendum to this like letter, Tagore says :
“ Bengali Hindus have become agitated over this topic, but it does not concern lone Hindus. Since there are potent feelings on both sides, a poise judgment is essential. In avocation of our political aims we want peace, integrity and good will—we do not want the endless tug of war that comes from supporting the demands of one faction over the early. ” [ 13 ]
Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950, made the following statement which was besides adopted as the final decision on the issue :
|“||…The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members. (Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950)||”|
view of Muslim institutions
many Muslim organizations in India have declared fatwas against singing Vande Mataram, ascribable to the song giving a notion of worshipping Mother India, which they consider to be shirk ( idolatry ). [ 14 ] Muslim institutions in general, see Vande Mataram in a negative light. Though a total of Muslim organizations and individuals have opposed Vande Mataram being used as a “ national song ” of India, citing many religious reasons, some Muslim personalities have admired and even praised Vande Mataram as the “ National Song of India ”. Arif Mohammed Khan, a erstwhile Union Minister in the Rajiv Gandhi politics, wrote an Urdu translation of Vande Mataram which starts as Tasleemat, maan tasleemat. [ 15 ]
All India Sunni Ulema Board on Sept 6, 2006, issued a fatwa that the Muslims can sing the first two verses of the song. The Board president of the united states Moulana Mufti Syed Shah Badruddin Qadri Aljeelani said that “ If you bow at the feet of your beget with deference, it is not shirk but only respect. ” [ 16 ] Shia scholar and All India Muslim Personal Law Board vice-president Maulana Kalbe Sadiq stated on Sept 5, 2006 that scholars need to examine the condition “ vande. ” He asked, “ Does it mean salute or worship ? ” [ 17 ]
view of Sikh institutions
Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee or SGPC, the overriding representative consistency in the Sikh Panth, requested that the Sikhs not sing “ Vande Mataram ” in the schools and institutions on its centennial on Sept 7, 2006. [ 18 ] SGPC question, Avtar Singh Makkar, expressed concern that “ imposing a sung that reflected precisely one religion was bound to hurt the sentiments of the Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and other religious minorities. The DSGMC ( Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee ) has called scorch of “ Vande Mataram ” against Sikh tenents [ 19 ] as the Sikhs sought “ sarbat district attorney bhala ” ( universal social welfare ) and did not believe in “ devi and devta ”. [ 19 ] DSGMC head H. S. Sarna besides added that the birdcall “ Vande Mataram ” had been rejected retentive ahead by well known exemption combatant Sikhs like Baba Kharak Singh and Master Tara Singh. [ 19 ]
opinion of christian institutions
Fr. prostitute Kullu from Jharkhand stated in an consultation with AsiaNews : “ The song is a part of our history and national celebration and religion should not be dragged into such mundane things. The Vande Mataram is simply a national birdcall without any intension that could violate the tenets of any religion. ” [ 20 ] however, some christian institutions such as Our lady of Fatima Convent School in Patiala did not sing the song on its hundredth anniversary as mandated by the state. [ 21 ] Christians make a distinction between “ fear ” and “ worship, ” and even though the song falls into neither of these categories, some Christians may have declined to sing the national song because of their sympathize of its intention and content.
On August 22, 2006, there was a row in the Lok Sabha of the amerind Parliament over whether scorch of Vande Mataram in schools should be made compulsory. The opinion United Progressive Alliance ( UPA ) coalition and Opposition members debated the Government ‘s stance that singing the national birdcall Vande Mataram on September 7, 2006, to mark the 125th year celebration of its universe should be voluntary. This led to the House ‘s being adjourned doubly. human Resources Development Minister Arjun Singh noted that it was not binding on citizens to sing the sung. Arjun Singh had earlier asked all state governments to ensure that the first two stanza of the sung were sung in all schools on that day. Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP ) Deputy Leader V. K. Malhotra wanted the Government to clarify whether singing the home sung on September 7 in schools was compulsory or not. On August 28, targeting the BJP, Congress spokesman Abhishek Singhvi said that in 1998 when Atal Behari Vajpayee of the BJP was the Prime Minister, the BJP supported a similar circular issued by the Uttar Pradesh government to make the exercise compulsory. But Vajpayee had then clarified that it was not necessary to make it compulsory. [ 22 ]
On September 7, 2006, the nation celebrated the national song. television channels showed school children singing the birdcall at the advise time. [ 23 ] Some Muslim groups had discouraged parents from sending their wards to educate because of the exit, after the BJP had repeatedly insisted that the national sung must be sung. however, many Muslims did participate in the celebrations. [ 23 ]
Performances and interpretations
The poem has been set to a big number of tunes. The oldest survive audio recordings date to 1907, and there have been more than a hundred unlike versions recorded throughout the twentieth hundred. many of these versions have employed traditional South Asian classical ragas. Versions of the birdcall have been visualized on film in a number of films, including Leader, Amar Asha, and Anand Math. It is wide believed that the tune set for All India Radio post interpretation was composed by Ravi Shankar. [ 8 ] In 1997, as part of the fiftieth anniversary celebrations of the Independence of India, a musical album composed by A. R. Rahman, titled Vande Mataram, was released. The interpretation of the song played in it has become its most popular interpretation in holocene years. In 2002, BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most celebrated songs of all time. Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the worldly concern. Vande Mataram, from the movie Anand Math, was ranked second. [ 24 ] All India Radio ‘s translation, a well as A.R. Rahman ‘s version, are in Desh raga. [ 25 ]
- Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Vande mataram, the biography of a song, Penguin Books, 2003, ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.